JNMU http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs <p>The Journal of Nishtar Medical University is a leading, monthly, biomedical, peer-reviewed journal of Pakistan. It was founded in 2016 as a quarterly and eventually converted into a monthly in 2021.<br />With our emphasis on quality and global relevance, we attract submissions from all over the world.</p> en-US saqi@nmu.edu.pk (Dr Hamid Hassan) arif@nmu.edu.pk (Arif Hussain) Fri, 28 Oct 2022 10:11:32 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The PREVALENCE OF PSYCHOPSYCHIATRIC AILMENTS WITHIN OBESE FEMALE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF SOUTH PUNJAB http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/24 <p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> To evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety within non-obese &amp; obese female medical students of South Punjab and to observe their academic performance in context of pass percentage. <strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> One hundred and six female medical students; fifty-three obese (BMI&gt;24.9 + WHR≥0.8) and fifty-three non-obese (BMI≤24.9 + WHR&lt;0.8) were selected from Nishtar Medical University, Multan, through convenience sampling and were assessed by AKUADS, BDI &amp; BAI for prevalence of depression and anxiety respectively. To observe their academic performance, acquisition of a pass percentage within last professional exam was considered as an indicator to define academic performance in satisfactory terms.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Within the Obese Female Population, 81.1% had depression, and only 18.9% were normal, according to the AKUADS. While interpreting depression on BDI, 79.2% of the obese subjects presented with depression, while 20.8% showed no signs of depression. Moreover, on BAI, 77.4% of the obese females presented with anxiety, while only 22.6% of them were normal. The percentages of depression and anxiety among non-obese females were 22.6%,&nbsp; 26.4% and 20.8% on AKUADS, BDI and BAI respectively. As for academic performance, 79.2% of the obese females showed low academic scores; at the same time, only 20.8% of this population secured high academic scores. 66% of the non-obese subjects performed well academically. <strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Obese females have high prevalence of psychopsychiatric ailments and perform less satisfactorily on academic front.</p> Ms. Maria Siddiqui, Ms. Amna Mahmood, Ms. Naveera Ayub, Ms. Hafsa Naseer, Mr. Muhammad Abdullah, Mr. Muhammad Adnan Shah, Mr. Ahmed Ali Khan, Ms. Ayesha Maqbool, Ms. Marwah Asif Lodhi, Mr. Muhammad Ahmad, Mr. Muhammad Muzammil, Mr. Muhammad Talal Malik, Mr. Mahad Wyne, Mr. Muhammad Ahmad Karim, Mr. Muaz Ahmad Khan, Mr. Qasim Bashir, Ms. Momena Quasim, Ms. Ramisha Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/24 Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The PREVALENCE OF PSYCHO-PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS WITHIN MEDICAL STUDENTS ADDICTED TO MOBILE PHONE USAGE http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/28 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Mobile phone addiction creates the basis of psycho-psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety in medical students.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> 112 students from all five years of MBBS were selected from Nishtar Medical University, Multan by convenience sampling.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Within Smartphone Non-addict (SNA) subjects, as deciphered on DASS, 85.7% males while 82.1% females were found to be devoid of depressive spectrum. On the sub-scale of anxiety, 82.1% of both males and females had no anxiety. While interpreting stress, 78.6% of both males and females were normal and had no stress at all. Within the Smartphone Addict (SA) populations, 75.0% males and 71.4% females portrayed depression. On the sub-scale of anxiety, 75.0% males and 78.6% females depicted various shades of anxiety. While interpreting stress, 75.0% of both males and females harbored stress.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Mobile phone addiction leads to stress disorders like depression and anxiety in medical students addicted to mobile phones.</p> Ms. Marwah Asif Lodhi, Mr. Muhammad Ahmad, Mr. Ahmed Ali Khan, Mr. Mahad Wyne, Mr. Muhammad Ahmad Karim, Ms. Ayesha Maqbool, Mr. Muhammad Talal Malik, Mr. Muhammad Muzammil,, Ms. Hafsa Naseer, Ms. Amna Mehmood, Ms. Maria Siddiqui, Ms. Naveera Ayub, Mr. Muhammad Abdullah, Ms. Ramisha Chaudhary, Mr. Muaz Ahmad Khan, Mr. Muhammad Adnan Shah, Ms. Momena Quasim, Mr. Qasim Bashir Copyright (c) 2022 JNMU http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/28 Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA DURING PREGNANCY http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/31 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anemia is the most common medical disorder affecting the pregnant women .In developing countries like Pakistan, it is more common as compared to developed countries .This increased prevalence is due to malnutrition, short inter pregnancy interval and multiparity. Anemia is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity as well as mortality.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the prevalence of anemia in women admitted in labor room of Nishtar Hospital Multan, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong> Descriptive cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was conducted from 01-08-2019 to 31-07-2020 in the labor room of Nishtar Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Multan<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> All Pregnant women admitted in labor room regardless of duration of pregnancy were enrolled for study. Data was collected for basic demographics (Age, parity) and duration of pregnancy. Patient Hb was checked. All the information were entered on a self-designed proforma. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 24 for calculation of Frequency and percentages of qualitative data like age groups, parity, residential and socioeconomic status and severity of anemia and mean (SD) for quantitative data such as age and hemoglobin levels.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>During the study period, total number of patients enrolled for the study were 359.Out of 359, a total of 250 patients were found to be anemic. Anemia was defined according to WHO criteria i.e. Hb less than 11g/dl.in this study, frequency of anemia was 70.8%. Mean hemoglobin of the patients was 10.314 ± 4.213&nbsp;Patients with mild anemia (10 - 10.9g/dl) were 104/359 (30.3%), moderate anemia (7 - 9.9 g/dl) 138/359 (38.3%), severe anemia (4- 6.9 g/dl) 8/359 (2.2%). There was no patient of very severe anemia (Hb less than 4 g/dl.). Mean age of women enrolled in study was 27.5 years ± 5 years. Majority, 269/359 (75.0%) were between 21-30 years .Table 2 is showing the age distribution of patients. Regarding parity, 319 (88.6%) of the patients were from para 1 to para 5 while 40 patients (11.4%) were more than para 5. Regarding socioeconomic status, 348 patients (96.7%)were from low socioeconomic status ( monthly income less than 30,000 PKR) and only 11 patients ( 3.3 %) were from middle socioeconomic status ( monthly income more than 30,000 PKR). 200 /359 (55.6%) patients were from urban areas and 159/359 (44.4%) were from rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study revealed very high prevalence of anemia in our region. Therefore anemia should be recognized as a serious public health problem. This high prevalence can be decreased by awareness programmes, improving the dietary habits and status of the women and by counselling on birth spacing and regular antenatal care.</p> Dr. Mehnaz Khakwani, Dr. Rashida Parveen, Dr. Nabila Tariq Copyright (c) 2022 JNMU http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/31 Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The FREQUENCY OF PRECIPITATING FACTORS OF HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHYAMONG PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS IN GASTROENTEROLOGY DEPARTMENT OF NISHTAR HOSPITAL MULTAN http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/35 <p><strong>Objective</strong>; To determine Frequency of Precipitating Factors of Hepatic Encephalopathy Among Patients with Liver Cirrhosis.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Patients and Methods:&nbsp; </strong>The study is hospital based, cross sectional and prospective study, conducted in Nishtar Hospital Multan from March 2021 to March 2022. It includes already labelled of two hundred and ten (n=210) liver cirrhotic adults. Hepatic encephalopathy was clinically diagnosed on the basis of history from patients’ attendants, physical examination and relevant laboratory and radiological investigations. Other Biochemical and hematological tests like Complete blood count, Serum urea, creatinine, Prothrombin Time, INR, Liver function tests, Serum Albumin, Serum protein, with A:G ratio hepatitis B and C serology by ELISA technique was requested. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23 for descriptive analysis of the study variables. <strong>Results; </strong>During the study period a total of 210 patients with underlying HE was included. Mean age was 48 years, 128 were males and 82 were female. Regarding etiology of liver cirrhosis, 150&nbsp; of cases had Hepatitis C, 10 had hepatitis B, 3 cases had Autoimmune Hepatitis, 4 had Wilsons diseases 4 cases had Alcoholic liver disease and&nbsp; Non-Alcoholic liver disease and cryptogenic cirrhosis counts for&nbsp; 39 cases.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion; </strong>The results of this study conclude that constipation was the most common precipitating factor of hepatic encephalopathy followed by infection, serum electrolyte derangement and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our population subset which are potentially preventable and reversible in majority of cases. There is a definite need for health education and proper counseling in patients who were diagnosed as liver cirrhosis in relation to hepatic encephalopathy. Finally hoping this will be the&nbsp; Beginning for further general health education aiming to improve the community awareness about precipitating factors of hepatic Encephalopathy</p> Dr. Rizwan Hameed, Dr. Zain Sharif, Dr. Yasir Abbass Zaidi, Dr. Zubair Malghani, Dr Sheharyar Kanju, Dr Qasim Copyright (c) 2022 JNMU http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/35 Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The EVALUATION OF ONLINE STUDENT RESPONSE SYSTEM: SOCRATIVE APP TO FACILITATE STUDENTS IN ACTIVE LEARNING OF PHARMACOLOGY http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/38 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Use of<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Information technology, web-based software and smartphone’s applications are being incorporated in the current education system in various medical institutions of the world. In Pakistan, Medical educationists have also introduced modern trends to improve our teaching methodologies and assessment modalities. To explore what learners perceive about the change of traditional to web-based teaching strategies, surveys should be conducted. So, we can find out the benefits and drawbacks of these softwares and upgrade our strategies in medical education.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The study was designed to evaluate the perception and understanding level of students regarding online student response system based Socrative application for active learning.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> During the 50 minutes of our Pharmacology class/ tutorial, the first 40 minutes were specified for interactive session, and the last 10 minutes were utilized for Socrative App. After concluding the session, students were asked to attempt some quizzes available on Socrative App installed on their mobile phones. By the end of the module, students were directed to fill feedback forms and their responses were assessed. Data was analyzed by the SPSS-20 for frequency and percentages.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Ninety eight students participated in the survey. Most of the students (90%) were of the opinion that they enjoyed solving questions on Socrative. Eighty percent students stated that web-based learning is more effective than traditional lectures. About 85% of our students responded in favor of this application; 85% considered themselves to be more actively participating, and 96% felt more encouraged and motivated. Furthermore, 97% of the participants were of the opinion that this software improved their understanding skills.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Students were pleased with blending of conventional and online facilitation. Incorporation of mobile based applications made the learning environment more interactive as compared to the conventional teaching methods.</p> Dr. Saba Batool, Dr. Bushra Shaheen, Dr. Noaman Ishaq, Dr. Filza Ali, Dr. Qurat ul Ain Mehdi, Dr. Sana Shah Copyright (c) 2022 JNMU http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/38 Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A SUCCESSFUL ENDOSCOPIC REMOVAL OF A SWALLOWED TOOTHBRUSH: CASE REPORT http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/41 <p>Most of the foreign bodies that are ingested accidently passes through the gastrointestinal tract without causing any complication. But foreign bodies that are rigid and long have high chances of gastrointestinal complication like perforation, foreign body impaction and bleeding. So, the removal of such foreign bodies is strongly recommended before any of above-mentioned complication develops. This is a case report of a 54-year-old Man who swallowed the toothbrush accidently. The previously reported cases of tooth brush removal was usually in patients with Bulimia and other psychiatric illness. The toothbrush from this Gentleman was removed successfully with the help of flexible endoscopy and polypectomy snare. Removing such long and rigid foreign body is a special challenge. Morbidity and mortality is significantly reduced when such foreign bodies removed urgently. In case of Failure of endoscopic removal, Laparoscopic surgery may be an alternative approach.</p> Dr. Rizwan Hameed, Dr. Zain Sharif, Dr. Yasir Abbass Zaidi, Dr. Zubair Malghani Copyright (c) 2022 JNMU http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/41 Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The PSYCHO-PSYCHIATRIC COLLAPSE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS – A DEMONIC CHAOS IN PROGRESS http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/19 <p>This has become absolutely essential that parents and teachers as well as educationists and psychiatrists shall put integrated efforts to make the availability of counseling counters for the evolving doctors of our society where the most wizened and non-traditional dignitaries of ours could help the evolving doctors with connectivity, understanding and grooming without the sacrilege ushered by social as well as professional taboos so that our future health professionals could seek guidance as well as strength to overcome the domestic, social and professional stressors in an amicable way in order to evolve into exemplary health exponents. The time bracket available to us is slowly fading away and if the educationists and psychiatrists do not stand up to this now they shall see those responsible for their own wellbeing tomorrow, withering today at their own doorstep creating a future that will be most bleak to those at helm of affairs today.</p> Dr. Hamid Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 http://journal.nmu.edu.pk/index.php/njs/article/view/19 Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000